When copying passages from this work, there were many formatting problems to correct. Any errors are my own. The spelling is an older form of English.
standard of the grappling teclmique.
The exercise of the Grappling techniques should be based upon that of the holding. The techniques of choking and those of bending and twisting the joints might be practiced in a standing position. In reality, however, they are mostly practiced in Randori in the l ying position. In these cases, the various actions and f undamental managings of body can be trained very safely and effectively with the techniques of holding. And those of choking, and those of bending and twisti ng the joints are very often followed or changed from those of holding.
So, as the techniques of throwing and grappling are performed successively, those of holding, choking and joint tricks are always practiced in a trial. One must choose some to meet the attack of the opponent. Thus trained and applied accordingly, the techniques shall be drilled more and more, and the interest for t he an shall be deepened ever more.
For the exercise of those techniques, as in those of throwing, they should be performed gently and bearingly, shunn i ng always the rigidity of body and the stiffeni ng of mind .
about the techniques of holding
These techniques are performed in holding the opponent thrown on the back. To hold the oppenent thrown on h is face is not the proper Holding. That is because there is a way of thinking that in the latter posture, it is much eas1er to rise for the held one than when thrown on the back, the effect of holding in this case is not so perfect as in the former.
'The opponent to whom the holding technique is applied will do·his best to rise or to change the position. The holder should control him completely, not only with the strong hand , but with all the power of his body accordingly and effectively against the every attitude of the opponent as the occasion
In the Holding, the following points demand considerations.
To hold with one's all energies.
To hold every spot to prevent the opponent's rising.
To make the opponent fail in all his effort to rise, not to concentrate one's strength on one side.
It is not allowed, though in the excess of endeavour hold or to rise, to touch the oppenenr's face or to grasp him at random except the costume.
about the technique of choking
There are two kinds of techniques : Neck Choking and Trunk Squeezing. Only the former is exercised.
Choking means to oppress the neck from both sides, and not to strangle. To be effective in this technique, the following points demand considerations.
To control all bodily actions of the opponent. To press the opponent's neck with the narrow part of the arm.
To keep one's body quite free, so as to take an active part if necessary.
ln the exercise, it is not allowed to shut the oppenent's mouth or nose with one's palm, or to grasp the throat . It is a matter of course these behaviors could not be regarded as the proper tricks.
about the techniques of bending and twisting the joints.
There are many varieties in this category. Exercises are performed only on the elbow joint. The methods prone to break the neckbone or the back bone are stricktly prohibited.
The exercise on the elbow joint, the following points should be taken into considerations.
To control all the bodily actions of the opponent. One's strength should be used by the principle of fulcrum.
To keep one's body quite free for every action.
form is a system of . exercises arranged and systematised for the most appropriate application of techniques in some determined case. By the practices of Kata one can easily learn the theory of attack and defense and at the same time the applications of the fu ndamental tricks. But, one can never be 'trained' oneself by the forms only, because the forms are always prearranged exercises.
not the photo in the book which was to small to reproduce
The forms taught generally in the Kodokan are as follow :
1. Forms of Throwing,
2. Forms of Grappling,
3. Forms of Gentleness,
4. Forms of Decision,
5. Form Antique,
6. Forms of •Five,'
7. Forms of the National Physical Education
(based on t he principle of Maximum-Efficiency.)
In each of these Forms, many tricks are arranged for a certain object, selecting those which are theoretically or practically valuable among the innumerable methods of attack and defence.
Forms of Throwing and Grappling are called en bloc Forms of Randori (Free Exercise). These are arranged for the study of theory and practice of all the. techniques of throwing and grappling generally employed in Free Exercise.
The Forms of Gentleness are all very gentle actions, and arranged for the regular exercise how to manage the body in attack and defence, and how to employ one's strength most effectively.
The physical education is specially taken into consideration for the choice of these forms : so they are adequate for the st udy of Jud o and for .the practice of its movements, irrespective of age and sex. Furthermore, as the methods of attack and defence are there manifested expressively, the study of these forms are quite enjoyable, and are prone to deepen the interest of Judo. These forms can be performed regardless of dress and location.
The Forms of Decision aim at the teaching of the principle of body-managing and the theory of attack and defence with t he techniques of attacking the vital points.
The so-called Forms Antique and those of •Five' teach the general principle of techniques, including many interesting phases of Judo : so they can be said "Art in judo."
The Forms of National Physical Education (based on the principle of Maximum-Efficiency) were devised for a gymnastic system, as the nomination shows. Its Single Exercise aims at the training of techniques of attacking the vital points, and the Companionate Exercise is chosen from the forms of Gentleness and of Decision, aiming at the same points of importance in these forms.